In 1905, Klara Klebanova, a young woman from a middle-class Jewish home near Chernigov, left her job as a teacher to become a revolutionary. Finding Russia’s Social Democrats not radical enough for her liking, she joined the “Maximalist” offshoot of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, an extreme group known for its use of violence. Over the next ten years Klebanova conducted propaganda, smuggled dynamite under her clothing from Finland, and helped with the “expropriation” of capitalist resources from banks, which made the group notorious internationally. Eventually she was arrested and spent two years in a women’s prison before leaving Russia for Paris. In 1914 she and her husband, another Maximalist leader named Lipa Katz, moved to Boston, where, in 1922, she published her memoirs in the Forverts newspaper under the title Di blutige teg, or The Bloody Days. When Klebanova died, in 1977, she still regarded her youthful radicalism as the highpoint of her life.